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Types of Roofing Products and Roofing Terms
Types of Roofing
The most common types of roofing materials or roofing supplies for residential structures are: asphalt shingles, wood shingles and shakes, metal roofs, tile, slate and rubber roofing products.
Asphalt Roofs: This is the most commonly used and least expensive roofing material and generally has a 15 to 25 year life span. Asphalt or composition shingles are made with a core of cellulose or fiberglass, covered with a coating of asphalt on both sides and topped with protective mineral granules.
Asphalt shingles show their age when the mineral granules wear off, reveal the black asphalt, and the corners and edges of the shingles begin to curl and crack. This is an indication that the asphalt composition has begun to dry out and lose its weather-proof seal.
Wood Shingles and Shakes: Wood shingles and shakes are made from western red cedar. Shakes are heavier than shingles and are split rather than sawn, giving them a rougher appearance than shingles.
Metal Roofs: Metal roofs are highly resistant to damage from the elements and will frequently last 50 years or more. Metal roofs come in a wide variety of styles from metal tile with the look of traditional Spanish tile roofs to metal shake with the look of traditional shake roofing to standing seam metal applications.
Clay and Concrete Tiles: Tile roofs are among the most stylish available. They are also among the most challenging roofs to support and install. Because clay tiles can weigh over 1000 pounds per square, most roofs will need reinforcement to hold such weight.
Slate: Beautiful and stable, slate roofs are also costly and cumbersome to install. A slate roof will last a lifetime and is fireproof.
Rubber Roofing: Manufactured from recycled automobile tires, rubber roofing products are beautiful and durable. They come with a 50 year warranty.
Glossary of Roofing Terms
Built-up Roofing- An outer covering of a flat roof, consisting of several layers of saturated felt. As laid, each layer is mopped with hot tar or asphalt. The top layer is finished with a mineral or rock covering and a special coating.
Collars or vent sleeves- Sheet metal-flanged collars placed around vent pipes to seal the roofing around the vent pipe openings.
Decking- The structural "skin" of a roof over which roofing is applied, typically "skip" sheeting under wood shakes or plywood or OSB board under composition
Eaves- Edge of the roof that projects over the outside wall.
Exposure- Portion of shingle exposed to the weather. It is measured from butt of one shingle to butt of next course.
Fascia- Horizontal trim at eaves that covers the rafter ends.
Flashing- Material used to prevent seepage of water around an intersection or projection in a roof (vent pipes, chimneys, valleys.)
Pitch- Height from the gutter to the ridge, divided by the width of the building expressed as a ration of rise to span (4/12 or 7/12)
Square- An area of exposed roofing 10 feet by 10 feet or 100 square feet.