How does a potential credit issuer use a credit score?
Many lenders — and others — use your credit score to help determine whether or not to give you a line of credit. Your credit score can also affect
your ability to get a job, rent an apartment, get a cell phone, and even find affordable car
What goes into creating a credit score?
The most commonly used score, called the FICO score, generally measures five key criteria:
- Length of credit history
- Types of credit lines
- Payment history on those
- Amounts owed on those credit
- New credit lines — how
many and over what period of time
In addition to looking at a credit score, what do creditors look for on a credit report?
They look at several things,
which ultimately come together to build a financial profile
of you. This can include:
- Your monthly and annual income.
- Your monthly payment obligations
including rent, student loans, medical bills, car payments, utilities, telephone/cell/cable bills, etc.
- Are your financial obligations in line with your total income?
- Are your monthly payments in line with your monthly income?
- Do you pay your bills on time?
- Do you have outstanding traffic or parking tickets or other government-issued citations?
- Do you have any kind of credit history?
- How many credit cards have you applied for in the last few months?
How do I know if what's on my credit report is accurate? And what do I do if I find out there's a mistake on it?
A federal law allows you to request a FREE COPY of your credit report from EACH of the three
major credit bureaus once every 12 months. The only free resource
to get a copy of it is at www.annualcreditreport.com.
If you find mistakes on your credit report, you should contact each of the three credit
reporting agencies to report the error/s, and start the process to correct them.
I like having several credit cards to choose from — especially retail store cards. Is there anything I should be aware of with that?
Yes — two things to be aware of:
- The number of credit applications you submit — even for retail store
cards — may show up on your credit report and can be a “red flag” to potential
creditors. Any red flag may cause them to deny your application or charge you a higher
interest rate on your credit line.
- Opening several lines of credit may also lower your credit score, because
it will reduce the “average age” of your accounts — a key criteria in determining
your credit score.
What can I do if I have trouble qualifying for a credit card?
There are two possible things you can do:
- Contact your bank and ask what you can do to get a credit card.
One possible option the bank might suggest is to issue you a card with a low credit limit
that you can gradually increase as you show that you can pay your bills on time.
- Another possible option the bank might suggest it to apply for a Secured Card.
This product requires you to deposit a certain amount of money into a savings account before
you can use the credit card. Most banks who offer secured cards will then match your credit
limit with the amount of money you've deposited into the account. As you build a strong
track record with your bank over time, you can request an application for a general purpose credit card.
What can trigger the bank to increase
There are a number of things that can trigger an increase in the APR, but the most important one that
you should guard against is missing a payment deadline.
What is a “Teaser” rate on a
A Teaser rate is the same thing as an “Introductory” rate, which is a lower APR
designed to attract credit applicants. Teaser rates last for a set period of time (all must be
honored for a minimum of six months), and then the rate will increase. Read the rules closely so you
understand the agreement you are making with the credit issuer.
How can I protect myself from fraudsters attempting to trick me into divulging my bank
or credit account information?
Your bank will never call or email you for the purpose of “verifing” your account information.
They already have it.
ignore any threats or expression of urgency you receive by phone or email, indicating
that your account will be de-activated if you do not respond immediately and “verify” your information.
I'm behind on my payments, and I'm uncertain if I can catch up on my own. What
do you suggest?
First, call your lender(s) directly, by calling the issuing bank's customer service line.
Ask to speak to someone who can explore some repayment options with you. When you get the right kind of
banking representative on the line:
- Focus on what you can do. Be prepared to share some ideas.
Sometimes a small change can make a big difference, such as asking to
shift your due date to a better time of the month if you're frequently
struggling to make your payments just before your payday.
- If your issuing bank tries to contact you — respond, and have this type of conversation.
Don't be afraid to talk with the bank, which may be able to make some changes that could make it easier to pay off the debt.
- Make an appointment with a reputable credit counseling agency, if your attempts to negotiate with your
lenders have not been successful. There's additional advice on this step in the next Q&A, immediately below.
How do I find and work with a reputable credit counseling agency?
Interview several agencies.
If you know someone who has used such an agency in the past, ask them for a recommendation. Or, ask friends
or relatives who they would consider if they needed budgeting advice. You can also find credit counselors in the Yellow Pages, by contacting
the National Foundation for Credit Counseling (www.nfcc.org) or the Association of Independent Consumer
Credit Counseling Agencies (www.aiccca.org) for a list of members or by using an Internet
Further, The CARD Act mandates that issuers provide three licensed and Government approved credit counseling
agencies or a toll-free phone number that provides that information on each statement.
What are some good signs of a reputable credit counseling agency?
Here's a list of seven (7) criteria to look for/ask about:
- Recognized as a non-profit by the IRS.
- Required to maintain all proper licenses.
- Provides review of customers' income and debts, along with a written plan for reducing and eliminating debt.
- Disperses the proper payments to creditors at the proper times — typically twice a month.
- Provides clients with written statements at certain intervals.
- Offers various educational programs and other ways to help consumers overcome debt.
- Audits accounts.